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Current Political Dimensions and Issues of Globalization concerning the Palestinian Issue

Current Political Dimensions and Issues of Globalization concerning the Palestinian Issue

Bhunesh Maheshwari, Meenakshi Verma, M. Usman Murtaza Asad


In the age of globalization, the Palestinian question remains a major geopolitical concern with numerous elements. The interaction of global forces, regional dynamics, and local realities results in a complex web of political, economic, and social difficulties with far-reaching consequences. Globalization has had a significant impact on the present political environment surrounding the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, affecting problems such as international diplomacy, economic interdependence, media and information distribution, and transnational activism.

Understanding the Palestinian dilemma's contemporary political dynamics and globalization challenges necessitates a comprehensive examination of these linked elements and their implications on the drive for Palestinian rights, statehood, and self-determination dated back to the history in 1967.



The Israeli military governor started issuing military directives that would drastically alter the lives of those living in the West Bank Gaza within days after Israel's capture of the territory in June 1967. At least half of these directives dealt with business-related issues, since one of the main goals of the Israeli occupation was and still to dent the territories' economies to conform to their own economy's requirements, interests, and structure. One of these objectives is having access to inexpensive labor. 90% percent of the occupied territories' imports originate from or pass via Israel because of military directives cutting off the occupied regions from the outside world.


It was pretty evident that globalization during that time was on a low. As per the global economy research report, Palestine accounted for 25.45 points on the overall globalization index from 1970-1995. From 1978 to 1988 the Palestinian economy experienced a significant downturn. The Palestinian economy is now dependent on the Israeli economy because of Israel's modifications to the economic infrastructure in the occupied areas. In September 1993, the "Oslo agreement" gave the West Bank and Gaza Strip a foundation for economic development. Nonetheless, this framework granted Israel authority over Palestine's exterior boundaries as well as over land, labor, capital, and other industrial variables. Israel continued to have total control over the Palestinian economy by controlling the primary labor, capital, water, and land resources as well as the crossings of borders. There was hardly any opposition to this dominance.


The present political elements and globalization concerns surrounding the Palestinian dilemma are complicated and numerous. Recent events, such as the unrest in East Jerusalem and the 11-day war in Gaza, have re-focused international attention on the Israeli-Palestinian issue. As of today, Israel has continued its attack across Gaza, killing around 22,400+ people. Around 355,000 residential units have been destroyed along with 360 educational facilities, 23 hospitals and 203 worship places which indicates that all the developments are now back to zero.


The growth of Palestine as a worldwide cause is a critical problem. In the late 1960s, Palestine became a symbol of solidarity and support for the Left, influencing domestic ideological perspectives.


Another concern is the turmoil in Palestinian politics. The struggling Palestinian economy, which has seen a reduction in GDP per capita and decreasing donor help to the Palestinian Authority, has harmed the Palestinian Authority's economic stability, and raised threats of destabilization and collapse.

Furthermore, a reduction in international attention to the Palestinians may have an impact on their economic, as well as political risks associated with discontent, violence, and Israeli movement, access, and land use restrictions.


Furthermore, the subject of settler violence against Palestinians is a major source of worry. In recent years, the frequency of incidences of settler violence has escalated, causing injury, and prolonging the conflict.


These characteristics and concerns are impacted by and intersect with wider globalization dynamics such as economic interdependence, information flow, and international action. Globalization has boosted global knowledge and participation in the Palestinian dilemma, creating debates and alliances.


Understanding Globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon involving economic, political, social, and cultural aspects


Globalization refers to the increasing connectivity and interdependence of nations and regions, which results in the integration of economic, political, social, and cultural activities throughout the world. When studying globalization in the context of the Palestinian conflict, various political elements and challenges emerge. For starters, globalization has had a tremendous influence on the political environment around the Palestinian question.


If we talk about the economic aspect, The Palestinian Authority's international stance promoted the freedom of movement of both domestic and foreign banks, allowing the Palestinians to freely transfer their funds overseas. Ninety percent of Palestinians, according to statistics, had funds in banks in Jordan. Consequently, these deposits were not used to advance the Palestinian economy but rather were invested in line with Jordan's needs. The amount of loans and the number of Palestinian borrowers were decreasing, and the loans came with strict requirements. In 1996, statistics revealed that the percentage of loans to deposits was 80% in Gaza, 18.6% in the West Bank, 90% in Israel, and only 21.6% in Jordan. In 1997, there was a minor rise, with a 28% increase in Gaza. However, just 6% of the loans were used to build facilities which is a sign that economic development is being promoted, and almost 70% of the loans had short terms.


The industrial structure had grown erratically over time, and as developed nations held an advantage in the process of globalization, Palestinians were forced to accept unfair treaties entailing this process. Western developed nations restrained the Palestinian economy through aid and investment from the World Bank, IMF, and other international organizations; these organizations could only accept the dispersed low-level industry of developed nations, which resulted in the distinctiveness and reliance of the Palestinian industry structure.


Palestine was founded on a labor-intensive, export-focused, low-tech sector whose market was previously controlled by Israel and other industrialized Western nations due to its low productivity. Since 1991, the GDP of Palestine has been less than 12% of its industrial production. Between 1992 and 1996, the GDP's share of production from agriculture was less than 27.1%, which made products highly reliant on imports. The gap in commerce was widening. For instance, in 1994, the deficit totaled 1.59 billion USD. In 1997, it reached a peak of 2.08 billion US dollars.


With an investment of $500 million, the World Bank created nine industrial zones along the borders of Palestine and Israel known as the Green Line. These zones allowed Israeli and international businesses to produce goods and services using labor provided by Palestinians, thereby contributing to the globalization of the Palestinian workforce and economy while impeding the growth of the West Bank and Gaza's manufacturing industry.


Currently, the situation is depleting as of today. But the ship is somehow in favor of Palestine as many people are voicing out the issues over the media forums. It has permitted increasing worldwide knowledge and support for the Palestinian cause since information and photos from the conflict are now freely accessible and disseminated through many types of media and communication networks. This has increased worldwide pressure on national governments and multinational firms to comply with human rights principles and provide justice in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Furthermore, globalization has fostered the establishment of transnational alliances and networks that advocate for the Palestinian people's rights and self-determination. These coalitions and networks increase awareness and fight for a settlement to the Palestinian issue through diverse political techniques such as lobbying, advocacy, and international pressure.

Additionally, Globalization has also played a role in shaping the dynamics of the Palestine-Israel conflict by itself.


Implications of Globalization on the Palestinian Issue


Globalization's repercussions for the Palestinian dilemma are deep and diverse. On the one side, globalization has enabled Palestinians to raise their voices and engage in worldwide campaigning for their rights. Palestinians have used social media and digital platforms to convey their experiences and gain international support for their cause. Globalization, on the other hand, has expanded the power disparity between Israel and Palestine. The Israeli government has been able to leverage economic and political influence in the global arena, aided by strong international supporters, but the Palestinian Authority confronts constraints.


By the end of 2001, the Israeli-Palestinian issue was once more causing tension for both parties as well as for the rest of the world. Since its start in September 2000, the new intifada (uprising) has resulted in several acts of aggression between Israelis and Palestinians, including Israeli forces moving into regions under Palestinian authority in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and Palestinian attacks on Israeli civilians.


A grave consequence of the bloodshed that has resulted from the current intifada is the sharp rise in poverty that has occurred in the Palestinian Territories. Fears over the effects of this rise in Palestinian poverty on Israeli-Palestinian relations are reminiscent of worries expressed during the Oslo negotiations regarding Palestinian poverty and the necessity of economic growth in the Palestinian Territories.


Numerous factors related to the distinct political, physical, and cultural backdrop of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict contribute to the poverty issue in Palestine. Overcoming obstacles unique to each place and conflict will be necessary to solve this issue.


Simultaneously, it is imperative to emphasize the role that globalization plays in mitigating Palestinian poverty. Though many of the world's present issues are attributed to globalization, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is rarely discussed in relation to this process because it is decades old and has distinct features not found in other regions of the world. However, the globalization that currently affects every nation and region must be considered while discussing Palestinian economic development. Globalization is therefore connected to the Palestinian poverty issue and its solution.


Current Political Dimensions Linked with Globalization


The consequences of globalization for the Palestinian problem are numerous and varied. On the one hand, globalization has given Palestinians the ability to raise their voices and engage in global campaigns for their rights. Palestinians have utilized social media and digital platforms to share their stories and garner international sympathy for their cause. Globalization, on the other hand, has widened the gap between Israel and Palestine. With the help of strong international allies, the Israeli government has been able to leverage economic and political influence in the global arena, whereas the Palestinian Authority faces limits.


Issues and Challenges in the Globalized World


There are various important difficulties and challenges affecting the Palestinian dilemma in today's globalized society. The unequal distribution of power and resources is one of the primary challenges. The Israeli government has enormous influence and has access to resources that allow it to retain control over Palestinian territory, thanks to strong international supporters. This power disparity impedes the Palestinian fight for self-determination and exacerbates the difficulties Palestinians experience in their everyday life.


Another point to consider is the effect of globalization on the Palestinian economy. The Palestinian economy has benefited from globalization while still facing obstacles.

The world is now much smaller thanks to recent developments in global travel, worldwide communication, and information technology. Today, information, services, and goods are sent around the world far more quickly, thanks in large part to technological advancements like the Internet. To be globally competitive, governments and businesses have been compelled by technological advancements to pay more attention to how technology is being used in other parts of the world.


It is simple to picture a perpetually unstable society with a sequence of disastrous outcomes if existing trends in depletion of resources, sickness, violence, criminal activity, global warming, and population increase persist and merge over the next 50–100 years. According to the UN mid-range prognosis, two billion more people will join the global population in just 38 years, resulting in a record-breaking need for commodities. Asia's urban poorer regions will see the most of such expansion. Asia currently contains 4.2 billion people, and by 2050, that number is predicted to rise to 5.9 billion. Global middle class growth is predicted to reach 66 percent by 2030, adding around 3 billion new customers with greater demands and spending power.


Occupation and Neoliberal Globalization


Neoliberal globalization and its entanglement with the Israeli occupation is one of the primary features of globalization in the Palestinian dilemma. Neoliberal globalization has played an important influence in the continuation and expansion of Israel's occupation of Palestinian areas. It has increased Palestinian economic dependency on the Israeli economy, resulting in processes of dispossession and "de-development" that influence the social fabric and political dynamics of Palestinian society (Plasse-Couture, 2013). The Palestinian economy has been extensively influenced by neoliberal globalization, notably in sectors such as economic development, trade, and resource access. Israeli settlement development, separation walls, and control over Palestinian resources have all been linked to world economic policy. As a result, assistance reliance and state-building efforts have been hampered. The complicated link between neoliberal globalization and the occupation emphasizes the occupation's devastating impact on the Palestinian people.


A set of concepts and procedures with their roots in neoclassical economic theories that have been incorporated into the development agenda of international financial institutions (IFIs) and Western governments' policies from the mid-1970s might be referred to as "neoliberalism." The Post world War II Keynesian economic model was undermined by several factors, including high debt, inflation, the oil crises of the 1970s, a period of a surplus, the collapse of the industrialization of import substitution (ISI), the influence of organized labor, and the end of the gold standard. Neoclassical ideas also gained traction among governments in the West, IFIs, and operations elites.


It may be appropriate to acknowledge that the World Bank, which is the driving force behind neoliberal advocacy globally, has been heavily involved in the OPT, funding US$2.86 billion in at least 74 projects there between 1994 and the present.  Its initiatives have also advanced more quickly in recent years; since PLO Chairman Arafat's death in November 2004, at least 40 projects have been started. These initiatives cover a wide range of topics, including finance, NGO development, infrastructure, water and health, legal reform, pension reform, utility management, and utility administration. In fact, based on its success during the OPT, the World Bank hasn't hesitated to support PWC's demand for the comprehensive


Influence of Global Politics on the Palestine Conflict


The Palestinian dilemma lies at the crossroads of geopolitical forces, neoliberal globalization, and Israel's ongoing colonization of Palestinian territory. Neoliberal globalization has resulted in major economic and social developments, but it has also collided with the reality of occupation in ways that have had a profound impact on the Palestinian people. Israeli settlement development, the construction of the separation barrier, and control over Palestinian resources have all been linked to the global economy and neoliberal policies.

The Palestinian issue has returned to the forefront of public discourse due to the events of the last two months. Though activists and peace supporters have been raising the alarm for years, it took a level of mass violence—more than 22,000 Palestinians and 1,200 Israelis slain as of this writing—to draw attention to a rapidly worsening and brutal status paradigm.


In particular, the US government has discovered that it must respond to a situation that it has been deliberately attempting to disregard. Washington is currently spending time and money on Ukraine and other US objectives at the cost of other American goals.

Officials from the Israeli government contend that it is intolerable for Hamas to remain in Gaza due to security concerns. This is particularly true in the months following of the assault on October 7. As such, they have stated time and time again that their goal is to completely destroy Hamas. However, as observers point out, such a large-scale conflict—and worse, the apparent ongoing reprise of Gaza—is unable to achieve the objectives of elimination and ensuring Israeli safety.


Lawmakers should address the core reasons of the continuous violence, which include the Palestinian people's prolonged lack of political future and independence, rather than ignoring the Palestine issue.

 

Reassessing Globalization through the Lens of the Palestinian Issue


The Palestinian dilemma provides a unique viewpoint on globalization, particularly its effects on politics, economy, and culture. The movement of people, products, and ideas across boundaries has shaped the Palestinian fight for statehood and self-determination. For the Palestinian people, globalization has offered both possibilities and problems, altering their interactions with other nations, international organizations, and non-state actors.


Economically, globalization has enabled Palestinian enterprises to connect with worldwide markets and gain access to resources and technology that may fuel economic progress. However, the Israeli occupation and mobility restrictions have also hampered the Palestinian economy's full absorption into the global market.


On the political level, globalization has increased international knowledge and sympathy for the Palestinian cause, leading to diplomatic initiatives and pressure on Israel to comply with international law and human rights norms. At the same time, geopolitical forces and global power structures have affected Palestinians' capacity to realize their political aspirations.


Since the Israel-Gaza war started on October 7, at least 87 journalists—mostly Palestinians—had died as of January 3. Eighty Palestinian, three Lebanese, and four Israeli journalists have died, as reported by the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) and the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Due to this, the major perspective of influence in the eyes of the world is becoming a horror sight for Palestine as many people are silently supporting them.


Through transnational networks and media, the Palestinian diaspora has been able to sustain a strong feeling of identity and unity. It has also enabled the interchange of ideas and viewpoints on the Palestinian cause, boosting cross-border solidarity and activity. The dominance of Western cultural narratives in the global media environment, on the other hand, has made it difficult for the Palestinian narrative to achieve widespread awareness and comprehension.


It is critical to evaluate the unequal power dynamics and structural inequities that define the global order while reassessing globalization through the prism of the Palestinian question. Understanding how globalization has affected the Palestinian struggle can help us understand the complexity of global interconnection and how it interacts with concerns of justice, human rights, and self-determination.

 

References

(Emergence of Palestine as a Global Cause)

(The Politics of Virtue: How Globalization Affects Peacebuilding in Israel/Palestine (1994–2000))

(Local Media in Global Conflict)

(Reassessing “Whose Story Wins)

(Neoliberal Developments, National Consciousness, and Political Economies of Resistance in Palestine)

(Re-emergence of the Palestine question in world politics

(Neoliberalism and Palestinian Development)

(The Palestinian Poverty in the Era of Globalization)

(Analysis of the impact of Globalization on the Palestinian Economy)

(Globalization Index for Palestine)


 


Bhunesh Maheshwari, a distinguished post-graduate scholar at IoBM Karachi, emerges as a formidable force within the research team tasked with unraveling the historical tapestry and contemporary challenges of Palestine on the global stage. With a fervent passion for political history and a keen interest in global affairs, Bhunesh embodies a unique blend of analytical acuity and academic rigor.


Having traversed diverse academic terrains, Bhunesh's journey has honed his skills in critically dissecting intricate historical narratives. His previous research endeavors showcase a commitment to understanding the complexities of geopolitical dynamics, providing a solid foundation for navigating the multifaceted landscape of Palestine's history.


Bhunesh Maheshwari's analytical prowess extends beyond the confines of traditional academic boundaries, as he possesses a keen sense of empathy and a genuine curiosity for understanding the human aspects embedded within political narratives. This holistic approach ensures that his contribution to the team transcends mere analysis, delving into the lived experiences and societal ramifications of the Palestinian issue.


As a member of this research cohort, Bhunesh Maheshwari's role becomes pivotal in weaving together the threads of historical events, political intricacies, and global dynamics. His commitment to unbiased exploration and intellectual curiosity positions him as a driving force behind the team's mission to deliver a comprehensive and insightful article on Palestine's history and contemporary challenges.

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